Hello and welcome to
module two, global goals, co-authored with John McDonough. Module two, global
goals, is designed to be presented in
approximately one hour and builds from module
one, though it can also be taught as a standalone module. The Module supplement form includes
four recommended pre-readings for students to complete
prior to the module session. The supplement also
includes recommended metrics for evaluating whether students
demonstrate the learning objectives or not
after your delivery of the module and three multiple
choice example assessment questions that correspond
to this module. These assessment questions
can be administered at the end of the
module or, if you're teaching the entire series,
the assessment questions from each individual module can
be combined and administered as a single
assessment at the end. And you may, of course,
use the evaluation metrics as a guide to develop
your own assessment.

To keep the session
engaging, this module contains thought
questions in the teaching notes to pose to your
students along the way as well as a warm up
activity and wrap up video. This learning
experience is meant to be an introduction only,
hence the name starter kit. And while there are numerous
resources and references available about
the topics covered, for the purpose
of this module, we have curated a small sample
of high quality resources to support the learning outcomes
with dental students in mind.

We encourage learners,
and you as educators, to explore the literature
further beyond what is contained in this module. To extend the
learning experience, optional in class
activities have been inserted along the way. These learning activities
allow for approximately one additional hour
of active learning during the module session. This module is related
to six competencies from the global oral
health competency matrix. While these competencies
cannot be met through a single teaching module, this module is
working toward competency based best practices in global
health for dental education. Topics covered in this module
include some selected events, highlights, and their outcomes
from the world development timeline, including how
these relate to oral health. We've also included four
measurable learning objectives written specifically
for this module.

We've designed a
unique warm up activity to get your students'
thinking about their role within the health care system
in today's globalizing world. Here we introduce students
to a hypothetical dentist, Dr. Tooth. Dr. Tooth could be any one
of the students and anyone in the world, any gender, any
age, practicing in any country. To start, we suggest
asking the students a broad, open ended question
such as Dr. Tooth is a dentist, what now? The students will begin to
give you a variety of answers and likely some will say that

Tooth should practice dentistry or treat patients. Use guiding questions
to eventually arrive with the students at the idea
that doctor tooth is a dentist within a health system. So I recommend for
this activity that you draw Dr. Tooth on the board
and have the students begin naming things that are
necessary for Dr. Tooth to practice dentistry. These can happen in any order,
but create designated spaces on the board that
will be dedicated to each of the categories
within a health system, as I'm doing here in this photo
of my own in class warm up. Guide the students toward
filling in the board for each of the components. And this activity is not
meant to be exhaustive, but instead is meant only
as a warm up to get students thinking about the
complexities and multifaceted structure of the system within
which dentists deliver care.

For this module, we are
following the World Health Organization framework for a
well functioning health system and focusing on the six
major components, leadership and governance, health
information, health financing and payment, health care
workforce, supplies, equipment, and technology, and
service delivery. You can also have students
create their own health system maps in small groups as
we did in this example. Here is a close
up of the category leadership and governance,
which the students labeled as regulation. Additional photos from an in
class example of this approach are included with this module
under the Meet Dr. Tooth example. Overall, the details are not
the focus of this exercise. The point is to get the students
thinking about health systems and how the various components
impact their ability to provide care
to their patients. Following the warm
up, module 2 will review some major milestones in
global health and development and explore what they mean for
oral health and oral health care.

This will help us to
begin to understand what's in motion to assist
Dr. Tooth in providing affordable high quality care
to all patients who need it, particularly those who
can least afford it. These milestones include
the first global burden of disease study in 1990, the
1993 World Development Report, the United Nations
Millennium Summit and the resulting Millennium
Development Goals, the 2010 Global Disease Burden
Study, including the fact that dental
caries were found to be the most prevalent
disease in the world, the UN High Level Summit for
Non-communicable Diseases, and the UN Sustainable
Development Summit, including the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development, and the Sustainable
Development Goals.

This module then defines
universal health coverage and discusses why the progress
along the world development timeline has led us
to the recommendation for universal health
coverage worldwide. We also discuss what this means
for oral health specifically. We then introduce a
number of organizations and suborganizations
collaborating to ensure that oral
health is integrated into the global health
and development agenda. Collectively, these
and many other groups are focusing on access to
care, quality improvement, and controlling risk
factors for oral diseases through prevention
and health promotion.

I encourage your students to
further familiarize themselves with these entities
and explore how to get involved as both
students now and professionals in the future. I hope you enjoy
teaching module 2. And to continue your
teaching experience, please consider
our other modules. Thank you and happy teaching.



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