Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping. It can be short term, lasting for days or weeks, or a long time, lasting more than a month. 

Acute sleeping disorder endures from 1 night to half a month. And it can be called chronic if it occurs at least three nights a week for three months or more. Insomnia can occur due to psychological stresschronic painheart failureHyperthyroidismheartburnrestless leg syndromemenopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeinenicotine, and alcohol.

About 10% to 30% of adults have Insomnia at a given point of time at a given year. People above 65 years of age face more problems than the younger ones. Females are more frequently influenced than males. 

Types of Insomnia

Insomnia is of two types:-

  • Primary Insomnia – Primary Insomnia is such a condition which is not influenced by any other health condition or problem.
  • Secondary Insomnia – Secondary Insomnia is a condition in which a person faces trouble while sleeping due to some health condition (like asthmadepressionarthritiscancer, or heartburn); painmedication; or substance use (like alcohol).

 Causes of Insomnia-

What are the causes of Primary Insomnia?

The causes of Primary Insomnia includes:-

  • Psychological stress related to life events like losing a job, the demise of a friend or family member, divorce, etc., is some of the causes.
  • Commotion, light, or temperatures around us are some causes of primary Insomnia.
  • Working for long hours, change in duty shift, change in sleeping schedules, any bad habits, etc. contributes to Insomnia. 

What are the causes of Secondary Insomnia?

The causes of Secondary Insomnia includes:-

  • Problems related to mental health like depression and anxiety can lead to Insomnia. 
  • Medicines for coldsallergies, depression, high blood pressure, and asthma are also included. 
  • Irritation, pain or discomfort at night. 
  • Consumption of alcohol, caffeine is also a significant cause of secondary Insomnia. 
  • Hyperthyroidism and other endocrine problems.
  • Other causes include Hyperthyroidism and other endocrine issues.

What are the risk factors of Insomnia?

As it is already mentioned above, Insomnia affects women more rather than the men. It also affects adults more rather than young ones. Young and middle-aged African Americans also have a higher risk.

Some other risk factors include:-

  • Mental health problems
  • Working night shifts or shifts that rotate
  • Long-term illness

What are the symptoms of Insomnia?

The four primary symptoms of Insomnia are fatigue, irritability, sleepiness during the day and problems with concentration or memory.

What diagnoses are available for Insomnia?

The diagnosis of Insomnia is entirely dependent on the current situation of the individual. The steps of diagnoses include:-

  • Physical Test: If the reason for Insomnia is obscure, your doctor may do a physical test to look for the signs of issues that may be related to Insomnia. Periodically, a blood test might be done to check for thyroid issues or different conditions that might be associated with a sleeping disorder.
  • Sleep habits review: Along with asking sleep-related questions, the doctor may also have you complete a survey to decide your rest pattern design and your degree of daytime sleepiness. An individual may also be asked to note down his or her sleeping time and duration for the next couple of weeks. 
  • Sleep study: If the cause for your sleep deprivation isn’t exact, or you have indications of another rest issue, for example, rest apnea or fretful legs disorder; you may need to go through a night at a sleep centre. Tests are done to screen and record an assortment of body exercises while you rest, including cerebrum waves, breathing, heartbeat, eye developments and body developments.

What are the treatments for Insomnia?

If any individual has acute Insomnia, then he/she need not require any treatment. 

If it’s difficult for you to do regular exercises since you’re worn out, your doctor may recommend sleeping pills for a short period. Meds that work rapidly yet quickly can assist you with staying away from issues like sluggishness the following day.

Try not to use over-the-counter dozing pills for sleep deprivation. They may have side-effects. 

For chronic Insomnia, you’ll need treatment for the conditions or medical issues that are keeping you wakeful. 

What complications can one face due to Insomnia?

The complications that one can face include anxiety, irritability, trouble in focusing or concentrating. Higher risk of health problems like high blood pressure, obesity, and depression, risk of falling if you’re an older woman and slow reaction time that can lead to a car crash in case you are driving.

How to prevent Insomnia?

  • Maintain a regular sleeping time, and also try to get up at the same time every day. 
  • Do not take naps during the day time as it may lead to making you go sleepless at night.
  • Do not use mobile phones for too long before going to bed. 
  • Avoid having caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol as these are stimulants that can keep an individual from falling asleep. 
  • Exercise regularly. 
  • Relax before going to bed at night. You can listen to songs, or read a book before going to bed. 
  • Try not to eat a substantial feast late in the day. Try to have some light snacks before sleep time that may enable you to sleep.
  • Make your bedroom dark and comfortable before going to sleep. You can also wear a sleeping mask if you want. 
  • Keep your bed cosy and comfortable. 
  • In case you are not feeling sleepy, you can do something that can make you keep calm. 

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