Hi, I introduce myself, I'm Georgette Allian and I'm a Diabetes Dietitian from the West Hampshire Community Diabetes Association today I'm going to talk to you about how a diet can help you manage your diabetes. About 85% of people living with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and carrying that extra pounds can cause problems with our health, such as an increased risk of heart disease and high blood pressure. Recent evidence also suggests that some people can recover from diabetes by losing weight, particularly if we can shift visceral fat raft-like around our vital organs, such as the pancreas and liver. There is no special diet for diabetes, and there is no one diet that works for all of us. The best way to lose weight is to choose an eating method that you can stick to in the long term.
Whether it's, say, a Mediterranean diet, a low-carb diet, or a fasting pattern, it's important to think about the approach that's best for you, and not just pick a diet just because it works for you. Here we show a sample pound of fat to visualize what it looks like, and in this video, I'll make some diet and lifestyle suggestions that will help you achieve your weight loss goals to shed those unwanted pounds. Today we will focus on some general, evidence-based principles of healthy eating that underlie many popular diets. This shouldn't be confusing, and this video is meant to separate fact from fiction, and debunk some myths. We will use the "Eatwell Guide" developed by the Ministry of Health, and adapt it to a person with type 2 diabetes. There are five categories in total, and during this video, I will focus on highlighting foods that contain carbohydrates, whether they are types that contain sugar or starch; It is these foods that directly affect blood glucose levels.
If you are still finding it difficult with your diet after watching this video, we recommend that you ask for a referral by your GP or practicing nurse to visit a diabetes dietitian for advice that is more appropriate for each individual. We'll start here with the first section, the green section, or otherwise referred to as the fruit and vegetable section. Well, why do we need to include these foods in our diet? These foods are an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber, so including a good variety of them is key to making sure you reap all those important health benefits.
Hopefully, most of you have heard of the "five classes a day" message. It's important to stress that this is the lowest target limit, so if you hear other messages in the media promoting seven or ten portions a day, it's because there is no upper limit, especially when it comes to eating salad and vegetables. Some of the questions I get asked often include: Is it okay to eat grapes? Are bananas still allowed in my diet? The answer is simply "yes", but within the limits of controlling the food portion. All fruits contain a natural sugar called fructose, so to reduce the effect of eating these foods on your blood glucose levels, it's best to eat a reasonably sized portion and focus on distributing your food intake throughout the day.
If you're trying to lose weight, it may also be appropriate to limit yourself to two to three portions of fruit per day, and instead try to focus on increasing your intake of vegetables and salad, since these foods do not contain any of those natural sugars. Well, how much is the stake? A handful of fruit, for example, a handful of grapes or berries, or two small citrus fruits, such as tangerines.
This is about 80g if you prefer to use scales for accuracy. Or a small to medium-sized banana is a reasonable portion, but try to choose a fruit that is less ripe than this, that is , it is more green, as this lowers the concentration of sugar. Fresh, frozen, and canned items all count toward your at least five-a-day goal, but it's best to aim for canned varieties preserved in their natural juice.
It is also true that many tropical fruits, such as mango and pineapple, naturally contain more sugars than fruit grown in temperate regions, so it is especially important to stick to the recommended size of 80g to prevent blood glucose levels from rising just by eating. However, a smaller 30g serving or about 2 tablespoons is as much if you have a dried fruit like raisins, or for example, it would be three or four small dried apricots or prunes. The reason is that dried fruit is high in sugar. Avocados and olives are an exception to this rule when it comes to fruit, because they do not contain any natural sugars, but they are a source of healthy fats and a reasonable serving is no more than half an avocado per day. There are things like fruit juice worth mentioning; Because eating them causes blood glucose levels to rise quickly; Where all the important fibers have been eliminated from them, so it is preferable to eat the fruits of the whole fruit, or if you choose a specific juice, you should choose juices that rely more on vegetables, so that the portion of that does not exceed 150 ml for both types.
It's not always easy to buy store -bought in the recommended serving, so be careful because the two that appear are between 250ml and 330ml, which means you're only getting extra sugar in them. Grapefruit is worth talking about; Not because you have diabetes, but because it contains a compound that interacts with the absorption of certain medications, such as statins, that you might be prescribed if you have high cholesterol. So, that's why it's best to avoid grapefruit if you're taking this type of statin, but check with your pharmacist if you're not sure if this applies to your medication. When it comes to vegetables and salad, let me introduce you to the serving plate, which shows the recommended servings for weight loss. As you can see, it is recommended to fill your plate so that half of it contains vegetables and salad. These foods help you feel full for longer periods of time because they are an excellent source of fiber. Underground vegetables, root vegetables like carrots, contain only small amounts of carbohydrates , so you don't have to worry about their effect on your blood glucose levels.
Fruits and vegetables: An important source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fiber. Eat a variety of at least 5 servings per day All fresh, frozen and canned (in natural juices) counts Serving size is a key ingredient: either 80g, or 1 handful/fruit of fresh fruit, or 30g of dried fruit (unsweetened) Tropical fruits, such as grapefruit and oranges, have a higher sugar content than milder fruits that grow in temperate climates, such as apples and pears. Try eating vegetables or salad with your main meal, filling one-third to one-half of the plate. The second section deals with the pink protein section that It includes foods such as beans, legumes, eggs, corn products, meat and fish.
These foods are important for growth, body repair, and muscle building. Your diet is not likely to be protein-free, and if you follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, be sure to include plenty of plant-based proteins. There are alternatives to the vegetarian and vegan versions of the Eatwell Guide, and for more details, please search online. The main messages from this section are to limit the amount of red and processed meat, such as beef, bacon and sausage, to no more than a few times a week, and include sources of poultry, such as chicken or turkey. You don't need to eat meat every day, and the good news is that these foods don't affect your blood glucose levels unless they're covered in breadcrumbs or liquid dough, so try to limit these types. For weight loss, try to make up a quarter of your plate as a source of protein, for example for meat, the size of the palm of your hand.
Protein foods help you feel fuller for longer compared to foods containing carbohydrates, so try to include a source in each meal or snack if necessary. But remember, when it comes to portion control, for example a handful of nuts makes for a highly nutritious snack. Try to include more sustainable plant food sources , such as 200g beans or lentils. These foods are rich in fiber, so they will not affect your blood glucose levels compared to others. There are no limits on the number of eggs you can eat unless you have a genetic condition that causes high cholesterol levels. And if you like fish, you should include two portions of sustainably sourced fish during the week, and make sure that one portion is oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines.
Regarding the budget, all frozen and canned items are counted. Oily fish contains omega-3 oil, which helps protect your heart. And if you don't eat fish, you can take an omega-3 supplement, but that doesn't give you quite the same benefits. Plant-based alternatives are omega-3-rich seeds, such as chia seeds or flaxseeds. Protein: Try to eat two portions of sustainably sourced fish during the week, at least one portion of which is oily fish, such as salmon, sardines or mackerel (fresh, frozen or canned are all suitable) Limit your intake of red and processed meat.
Serving Any oily meat or fish the size of your palm For sustainability, include more plant proteins, such as beans and legumes, in your diet. The third section is the blue section, and it is called dairy products or their alternatives, which provide us with calcium. Good sources include milk, yogurt, fortified non-dairy alternatives, cheese, and items such as dark green leafy vegetables, canned fish bones, almonds, and fortified breakfast cereals. Try to eat three servings a day. In simplified terms, that would be 200ml of milk, a small box of yoghurt, and about 30g of cheese the size of a matchbox.
These 3 servings will meet an adult's daily calcium requirement. We need to include daily rich sources of calcium in our diet to strengthen teeth, hair and nails, as well as to build muscle. Milk and yogurt contain another natural sugar called lactose, and again, serving size is key to controlling blood glucose levels if you're trying to monitor your weight, sometimes opting for lower-fat versions can be helpful. But be aware, for example, that some types of yogurt Low-fat The fat was replaced with added sugars. In general, portion size is always the key. The gold standard would be a small 125g to 150g packet of natural, plain or Greek yogurt with a handful of fruit if you wish to sweeten it naturally. Another option is to look at the ingredients list to choose one where fruit is at the top of the ingredients list instead of added sugar. Keep in mind that a matchbox-sized piece of full-fat cheddar cheese contains about 100 calories.
Softer varieties generally contain less fat; For example, cheese is at the other end of the chain and is low in fat. We'll refer you to take a look at our recommended Carbohydrates and Calcium book as a great visual guide to different portion sizes and nutrient content. Calcium: To meet the daily requirement, include 3 servings of calcium-containing foods each day, ie 200ml of milk, a 125-150g packet of yoghurt, and a small matchbox-sized piece of cheese (about 30g). Dairy: Tofu, leafy green vegetables, almonds, and fortified breakfast cereals, or alternatives to unsweetened, dairy-free milk and yogurt.
Vitamin D is essential to help us absorb calcium from the foods we eat: the government advises that between October and March, adults should get 10 micrograms of vitamin D daily, along with safe exposure to the sun for the rest of the year; Where sunlight is the best source. The fourth section is our little purple section and is called oils and spreads. We all need some fat in our diet, but not too much of the saturated kind for the sake of our hearts. The healthiest cooking oil is rapeseed oil because it does not break down easily at high temperatures, and an oil like olive oil is ideal for cold sauces. Whatever your preference, try to use it in moderation. The recommended serving is one teaspoon per person being cooked for rather than overcooked, or there are sprinkle options that can help you control calories. Other healthy fats include oily fish, avocados, olives, nuts, and seeds. Eating these foods will not directly affect your blood glucose levels, but remember that to lose weight, even healthy foods should be consumed during portion control.
Spreads made with oils, such as vegetables, olives, or rapeseed, contain unsaturated fats and are healthier. Butter contains animal fat, which is higher in saturated fat. Eating a lot of saturated fat can raise cholesterol levels, so if this is your preferred option, it should be used in moderation, but consuming a little butter in moderation is not very harmful. However, foods made with a lot of butter such as pies, biscuits and pastries are often higher in calories, even if only small amounts are eaten. These foods can have a significant impact on your weight and cholesterol levels.
Oils and Spreads: Fats are one of the sources of energy and serve as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Any fats like butter and oil, and spreads like peanut butter should be about the size of the end of your thumb – from the knuckle to the end of the nail . Colza oil is best for cooking, and olive oil for cold sauces. The portion should be no more than a teaspoon per person. Eat healthy foods rich in fat in smaller quantities because they are energy-dense (i.e. high in calories), for example half an avocado or 30 g of nuts. Reduce consumption of fatty foods such as fried foods and fast food, and reduce snacks.
Products that contain a high percentage of butter, such as cookies, cakes, pies, or pastries, to ensure your heart's overall health. The last section is our yellow section, featuring starchy carbohydrates. This includes all types of bread, pasta , rice, oats, potatoes , and cereals, as well as anything else made with flour. In very simplified terms, these foods are broken down by the body, turning it into sugar for us to use as an energy source. They are not essential in our diet, but they do provide us with a good source of fiber and B vitamins. Carbohydrate requirements vary by gender, age, weight, and physical activity levels, so there are no set amounts for individuals, and some diabetics choose to follow a low-carb diet and lifestyle to help them manage their diabetes, and may turn to alternatives, such as cauliflower rice or zucchini strips. wrapped, instead of spaghetti. A low-carb diet is by definition less than 130g of total carbohydrates per day.
Where possible, choose varieties that are high in fiber and whole grain carbs to help keep your blood sugar levels steady, keep your bowels regular, and keep you feeling full for longer. This is sometimes referred to as low glycemic index, or low GI, foods. Portion size is the key. So just because a particular food has a low glycemic index, it doesn't mean that you can eat large amounts of it. The pasta is best eaten semi-cooked or solid on the bite so that it can be considered low on the glycemic index. A good starting point is that a quarter of your plate is a source of carbohydrates. For example, this will make a clenched fist for your baked potato, or maybe three or four small, egg-sized potatoes. Another important tip is not to remove the peel to get extra fiber, and try not to have double servings of carbohydrates at meals. For example, lasagna with garlic bread, or beef pie and porridge because these meals make the total carbohydrate content too high, and this will raise blood glucose levels after eating.
The good news is that we don't eat foods in isolation, so if you're balancing your meals on a ration plate and have reasonable amounts of carbs alongside a source of protein and fiber at mealtimes, any of the carb-containing foods you eat will break down into sugars at a rapid rate. Slower, as your body digests everything together, this is what we call a healthy balanced diet. Let's summarize the nutrients that affect our blood sugar levels: carbohydrates. Starchy carbohydrates: Foods such as bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, etc., are broken down into sugars and used for energy. They are a good source of B vitamins and fiber Carbohydrate requirements vary for each individual according to gender, age, weight and levels of physical activity The effect on your blood glucose levels depends on the quality and quantity eaten Try to limit your food portion to a quarter of your plate, and avoid side additions where possible, choose High-fiber, whole-grain carbohydrates to keep blood glucose levels steady, keep your bowels regular, and keep you feeling full for longer.
Low carbs defined as less than 130g of carbs per day Where else are carbs in our diet? Added or "sugar-free" sugary foods found in sugary drinks, fresh fruit juices, honey, sherbet, sweets, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, puddings/sweets Natural sugars found in fruit (fructose) and dairy products (lactose) No diabetes diet, no diet Food for all of us. The best way to lose weight is to choose an eating method that you can stick to for the long term.
We recommend abstaining from any sugary drinks and limiting the intake of fresh fruit juice to no more than 150ml per day, but only if necessary. Deal smart with snacks. You don't have to snack just because you have diabetes. If you are on insulin, a snack may be recommended to treat low blood sugar. For example, if your blood sugar level is low, if your levels are less than 4. Healthy snack options can include choosing yogurt or a handful of unsalted nuts and your own fruit , but as part of a portion control plan, or even a boiled egg, or some chopped vegetables with some hummus instead of switching to foods like crunchy chips, crackers or chocolate. A good tip is to be prepared with some healthy options if you feel hungry, and you don't want to eat "diabetic" foods, as there is no nutritional benefit, and now the law prohibits the use of these labels on products. When it comes to liquids, water is the best drink. You can flavor it yourself by adding some fresh fruit slices. Tea and coffee also count toward your fluid intake, with no added sugar, including a little milk.
You can try sugar-free herbal or squash tea, and Cordial syrup is also fine if it is sugar-free. Remember that no more than 150ml of fruit juice counts towards your 5 daily servings. It is also worth talking about salt. Reducing salt intake will lower your blood pressure. You should try to eat no more than 1 teaspoon, or about 6 grams, of salt per day. More than seventy percent of our intake comes from foods that are processed and easy to prepare, so always check the label, choose low salt options where possible, and when cooking use herbs and spices as a substitute for salt. Our last message is a word on alcohol. Drink alcohol in moderation. The guidelines recommend that men and women consume no more than fourteen units per week, ideally distributed over the seven days. One unit equals half a pint of aged beer, a small 125ml glass of wine equals one and a half, and a very small 25ml glass of gin, vodka, or other spirits, also equals one unit.
Alcohol also contains hidden calories, so it's not ideal if you're trying to lose weight. A large 250ml wine glass equals about 190 calories. A pint of beer can range from 210 calories per pint, to sweet cider, which can go as high as 240 calories per pint. Whereas, on the other hand, one small glass of a simple mixture of gin and tonic will have no more than 56 calories to be clear, two large glasses of wine and one glass of gin and tonic would be the equivalent of eating a large McDonald's burger. Finally, it's worth noting that beer contains carbohydrates, meaning that sipping it will also raise blood glucose levels, while spirits are carb-free and wine is low-carb. And remember: You don't have to be perfect: try to follow the 80/20 principle, eating healthy foods 80% of the time, letting yourself choose less healthy options 20% of the time, and everything in moderation. Thank you for listening today. This was our guide to eating healthy foods around diabetes.
For more information, we are flagging you for the 'Enjoy Food' brochure, which is available for download on the Diabetes UK website and has many useful online resources. For more information, please visit: www.diabetes.org.uk.